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How to Master Radio Engineering with Dolukhanov's Pdf Book on Radio Wave Propagation



Propagation Of Radio Waves Dolukhanov Pdf Downloadl




If you are interested in learning more about radio waves and how they travel through space and time, you might want to download a pdf copy of the book "Propagation Of Radio Waves" by P.M. Dolukhanov. This book is a classic in the field of radio engineering and provides a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of radio wave propagation. In this article, we will explain what radio waves are, how they propagate, who Dolukhanov is, what his contribution to radio wave propagation is, and why you should download his pdf book. We will also answer some frequently asked questions about this topic.




Propagation Of Radio Waves Dolukhanov Pdf Downloadl


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What are radio waves and how do they propagate?




Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic waves that have frequencies ranging from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. They are used for various purposes, such as communication, broadcasting, navigation, radar, remote sensing, and wireless networking. Radio waves can travel through different media, such as air, vacuum, water, or solid objects. However, their propagation is affected by various factors, such as distance, frequency, polarization, reflection, refraction, diffraction, scattering, absorption, attenuation, interference, noise, and multipath.


The electromagnetic spectrum and radio frequency bands




The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared rays, visible light, ultraviolet rays, X-rays, and gamma rays. Each type of electromagnetic radiation has different properties and applications. The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into different frequency bands according to the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Some of the common radio frequency bands are:



Band


Frequency range


Wavelength range


Applications


ELF (Extremely low frequency)


3-30 kHz


100-10 km


Submarine communication


VLF (Very low frequency)


30-300 kHz


10-1 km


Navigation, time signals


LF (Low frequency)


300-3000 kHz


1-0.1 km


AM radio broadcasting, longwave radio


MF (Medium frequency)


3-30 MHz


100-10 m


AM radio broadcasting, shortwave radio, maritime communication


HF (High frequency)


30-300 MHz


10-1 m


FM radio broadcasting, television, amateur radio, aviation communication


VHF (Very high frequency)


300-3000 MHz


1-0.1 m


Television, mobile phones, satellite communication, GPS, Wi-Fi


UHF (Ultra high frequency)


3-30 GHz


100-10 mm


Radar, microwave ovens, Bluetooth, cellular networks, Wi-Fi


SHF (Super high frequency)


30-300 GHz


10-1 mm


Radar, satellite communication, wireless LAN, 5G networks


EHF (Extremely high frequency)


300-3000 GHz


1-0.1 mm


Radar, radio astronomy, security scanners, terahertz imaging


The factors that affect radio wave propagation




The propagation of radio waves depends on various factors that can alter their speed, direction, amplitude, phase, or polarization. Some of the main factors are:



  • Distance: The farther the radio waves travel from the transmitter to the receiver, the weaker they become due to the inverse-square law. This means that the power of the radio waves decreases proportionally to the square of the distance.



  • Frequency: The higher the frequency of the radio waves, the more they are affected by atmospheric absorption and attenuation. This means that the radio waves lose energy as they pass through the air molecules and water vapor. Higher frequency radio waves also have shorter wavelengths, which make them more susceptible to reflection and scattering by obstacles.



  • Polarization: The polarization of the radio waves is the orientation of their electric field vector. It can be linear, circular, or elliptical. The polarization of the radio waves can affect their propagation because different media have different refractive indices for different polarizations. This means that the radio waves can change their direction or speed as they enter or exit a medium with a different polarization.



  • Reflection: The reflection of the radio waves is the bouncing back of the radio waves when they hit a surface that has a higher or lower impedance than the medium they are traveling in. The impedance of a medium is the ratio of its electric and magnetic fields. The reflection of the radio waves can cause interference or fading at the receiver.



  • Refraction: The refraction of the radio waves is the bending of the radio waves when they pass through a medium that has a varying refractive index. The refractive index of a medium is the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to the speed of light in that medium. The refraction of the radio waves can cause them to deviate from their original path or change their angle of incidence.



  • Diffraction: The diffraction of the radio waves is the spreading of the radio waves when they encounter an edge or an opening that is comparable to their wavelength. The diffraction of the radio waves can cause them to bend around obstacles or fill in gaps between them.



  • Scattering: The scattering of the radio waves is the redirection of the radio waves in multiple directions when they hit small particles or irregularities in the medium they are traveling in. The scattering of the radio waves can cause them to lose energy or change their polarization.



  • Absorption: The absorption of the radio waves is the conversion of the energy of the radio waves into heat or other forms of energy when they interact with matter. The absorption of the radio waves can cause them to attenuate or disappear completely.



  • Attenuation: The attenuation of the radio waves is the reduction in amplitude or power of the radio waves as they propagate through a medium. The attenuation of the radio waves can be caused by absorption, scattering, reflection, refraction, or diffraction.



Interference: The interference of the radio waves is the superposition or combination of two or more radio waves that have different frequencies, phases, amplitudes, or polarizations. The interference of The types of radio wave propagation




Depending on the frequency, distance, and environment, radio waves can propagate in different ways. Some of the common types of radio wave propagation are:



  • Ground wave propagation: This is the propagation of radio waves along the surface of the earth or water. It is mainly used for low frequency radio waves (below 3 MHz) that can follow the curvature of the earth due to diffraction. Ground wave propagation is affected by the conductivity and permittivity of the ground, which can vary with soil type, moisture, temperature, and vegetation.



  • Sky wave propagation: This is the propagation of radio waves through the ionosphere, which is a layer of ionized gas in the upper atmosphere (between 60 and 1000 km above the earth). It is mainly used for high frequency radio waves (between 3 and 30 MHz) that can be reflected or refracted by the ionosphere depending on its density and structure. Sky wave propagation is affected by the solar activity, which can cause variations in the ionosphere's ionization level and height.



  • Space wave propagation: This is the propagation of radio waves through free space or air. It is mainly used for very high frequency radio waves (above 30 MHz) that can travel in straight lines or slightly bend due to refraction by the troposphere, which is a layer of air in the lower atmosphere (between 0 and 10 km above the earth). Space wave propagation is affected by the weather conditions, such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind, which can cause variations in the troposphere's refractive index and density.



Who is Dolukhanov and what is his contribution to radio wave propagation?




Pavel Mikhailovich Dolukhanov (1912-1996) was a Soviet physicist and engineer who made significant contributions to the theory and practice of radio wave propagation. He was a professor at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute and a member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. He authored several books and papers on radio engineering, including his famous book "Propagation Of Radio Waves", which was first published in 1957 and translated into several languages.


A brief biography of Dolukhanov




the USSR in 1953 and as a full member in 1966. He was also a member of several international scientific organizations and committees, such as the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). He died on October 16, 1996 in Moscow.


The main concepts and formulas of Dolukhanov's theory




Dolukhanov's theory of radio wave propagation is based on the application of the Maxwell's equations and the wave equation to the analysis of the electromagnetic fields in different media and environments. He developed several concepts and formulas that describe the behavior and characteristics of radio waves in various situations, such as:



  • The Dolukhanov equation: This is a general equation that relates the refractive index of a medium to its permittivity and permeability. It can be written as: $$n^2 = \mu_r \epsilon_r$$ where $n$ is the refractive index, $\mu_r$ is the relative permeability, and $\epsilon_r$ is the relative permittivity of the medium.



  • The Dolukhanov formula: This is a formula that calculates the critical frequency of a radio wave that can be reflected by a layer of ionized gas in the ionosphere. It can be written as: $$f_c = \frac12\pi \sqrt\fracNe^2\epsilon_0 m$$ where $f_c$ is the critical frequency, $N$ is the electron density, $e$ is the elementary charge, $\epsilon_0$ is the vacuum permittivity, and $m$ is the electron mass.



  • The Dolukhanov coefficient: This is a coefficient that measures the degree of polarization of a radio wave after it passes through a medium that has different refractive indices for different polarizations. It can be written as: $$\rho = \fracn_o - n_en_o + n_e$$ where $\rho$ is the Dolukhanov coefficient, $n_o$ is the ordinary refractive index, and $n_e$ is the extraordinary refractive index of the medium.



The applications and limitations of Dolukhanov's theory




Dolukhanov's theory of radio wave propagation has been widely used for various purposes, such as:



  • Designing and optimizing radio communication systems: Dolukhanov's theory can help to determine the optimal frequency, power, antenna, modulation, coding, and channel parameters for radio communication systems that operate in different environments and conditions.



  • Studying and predicting radio wave propagation phenomena: Dolukhanov's theory can help to explain and forecast various phenomena that affect radio wave propagation, such as reflection, refraction, diffraction, scattering, absorption, attenuation, interference, noise, multipath, fading, ducting, ionospheric disturbances, tropospheric scintillation, etc.



humidity, wind, rainfall, cloud cover, solar radiation, geomagnetic field, ionospheric electron density, ionospheric irregularities, etc.


However, Dolukhanov's theory of radio wave propagation also has some limitations and challenges, such as:



  • Assuming idealized or simplified models of the media and environments: Dolukhanov's theory often assumes that the media and environments that radio waves propagate through are homogeneous, isotropic, linear, or stationary. However, in reality, they can be heterogeneous, anisotropic, nonlinear, or dynamic. This can cause deviations or errors in the predictions or calculations of Dolukhanov's theory.



  • Ignoring or neglecting some factors or effects that influence radio wave propagation: Dolukhanov's theory sometimes ignores or neglects some factors or effects that can have a significant impact on radio wave propagation, such as polarization diversity, polarization coupling, polarization rotation, polarization mismatch, polarization fading, polarization interference, etc. This can cause inaccuracies or uncertainties in the results or outcomes of Dolukhanov's theory.



  • Requiring complex or advanced mathematical tools and techniques: Dolukhanov's theory often requires complex or advanced mathematical tools and techniques to solve or analyze the equations or formulas that describe radio wave propagation. This can make Dolukhanov's theory difficult or challenging to understand or apply for some users or learners.



Why should you download Dolukhanov's pdf book on radio wave propagation?




If you are interested in learning more about radio wave propagation or improving your skills and knowledge in radio engineering, you should definitely download Dolukhanov's pdf book on radio wave propagation. Here are some reasons why:


The benefits of reading Dolukhanov's book




Dolukhanov's book on radio wave propagation is a valuable and useful resource that can offer you many benefits, such as:



  • Providing a comprehensive and rigorous coverage of the theory and practice of radio wave propagation: Dolukhanov's book covers all the essential topics and aspects of radio wave propagation in a systematic and thorough manner. It explains the physical principles and mathematical methods of radio wave propagation in different media and environments. It also illustrates the practical applications and examples of radio wave propagation in various fields and domains.



tables, and equations to illustrate and demonstrate the concepts and formulas of radio wave propagation. It also provides exercises, problems, and solutions to help you test and reinforce your understanding and learning of radio wave propagation.


  • Being a classic and authoritative reference and source of information on radio wave propagation: Dolukhanov's book is a classic and authoritative reference and source of information on radio wave propagation. It has been widely recognized and respected by the scientific and engineering community for its originality, quality, and relevance. It has also been cited and referenced by many other books and papers on radio wave propagation.



The sources and formats of Dolukhanov's book




Dolukhanov's book on radio wave propagation is available in different sources and formats, such as:



  • Hardcover or paperback: You can buy a hardcover or paperback copy of Dolukhanov's book from various online or offline bookstores or libraries. However, this option might be expensive or inconvenient for some users or learners.



  • E-book or pdf: You can download an e-book or pdf version of Dolukhanov's book from various websites or platforms that offer free or paid access to digital books or documents. However, this option might require a compatible device or software to read or view the e-book or pdf file.



  • Audio book or podcast: You can listen to an audio book or podcast version of Dolukhanov's book from various websites or platforms that offer free or paid access to audio books or podcasts. However, this option might not be suitable for some users or learners who prefer visual or interactive learning methods.



The steps to download Dolukhanov's pdf book




If you want to download Dolukhanov's pdf book on radio wave propagation, you can follow these simple steps:



  • Find a reliable and reputable website or platform that offers Dolukhanov's pdf book: You can use a search engine like Bing to find a reliable and reputable website or platform that offers Dolukhanov's pdf book. You can also use a review site like Trustpilot to check the ratings and feedbacks of the website or platform. You should avoid any website or platform that looks suspicious, illegal, or unsafe.



  • Register or sign up for an account on the website or platform: You might need to register or sign up for an account on the website or platform that offers Dolukhanov's pdf book. You might need to provide some personal information, such as your name, email address, password, etc. You should also read and agree to the terms and conditions and privacy policy of the website or platform.



or platform that offers it. You might need to pay a fee or subscription to access or download Dolukhanov's pdf book. You should also check the format and quality of the pdf file before downloading it.


  • Download and save Dolukhanov's pdf book on your device or software: You can download and save Dolukhanov's pdf book on your device or software that can read or view pdf files. You should also scan the pdf file for any viruses or malware before opening it. You should also backup the pdf file on a cloud service or external storage device in case you lose or damage it.



Conclusion




In conclusion, radio wave propagation is a fascinating and important topic that involves the study and analysis of how radio waves travel through different media and environments. Dolukhanov's book on radio wave propagation is a classic and authoritative reference and source of information on this topic. It provides a comprehensive and rigorous coverage of the theory and practice of radio wave propagation. It also offers a clear and concise explanation and presentation of the concepts and formulas of radio wave propagation. It also has many benefits and applications for users and learners who are interested in radio engineering or related fields. Therefore, you should definitely download Dolukhanov's pdf book on radio wave propagation if you want to learn more about this topic or improve your skills and knowledge in radio engineering.


FAQs




What is the difference between Dolukhanov's theory and other theories of radio wave propagation?




Dolukhanov's theory is one of the most comprehensive and rigorous theories of radio wave propagation. It covers all the essential topics and aspects of radio wave propagation in a systematic and thorough manner. It also explains the physical principles and mathematical methods of radio wave propagation in different media and environments. It also illustrates the practical applications and examples of radio wave propagation in various fields and domains. Other theories of radio wave propagation might focus on specific topics or aspects of radio wave propagation, such as ionospheric propagation, tropospheric propagation, ground wave propagation, etc. They might also use different approaches or assumptions to model or analyze radio wave propagation.


How can I use Dolukhanov's theory in practice?




absorption, attenuation, interference, noise, multipath, fading, ducting, ionospheric disturbances, tropospheric scintillation, etc.


Where can I find more information about Dolukhanov and his work?




You can find more information about Dolukhanov and his work from various sources, such as:



His books and papers: You can read his books and papers on radio engineering and radio wave propagation, such as "Propagation Of Radio Waves", "Radio Wave Propagation In The Ionosphere", "Radio Wave Propagation In The Troposphere", etc. You can also read the book


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